Dental Problems Associated with HIV/AIDS

What is HIV/AIDS?
HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is the virus that causes AIDS. This virus is passed from one person to another through blood-to-blood contact (blood transfusions, HIV-infected needles) and sexual contact. In addition, an infected pregnant woman can pass HIV to her baby during pregnancy or delivery, as well as through breast-feeding.

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) occurs when the HIV infection has weakened one's immune system to the point that it has difficulty fighting off certain illnesses and infections. "Opportunistic" infections also occur, taking the opportunity a weakened immune system gives to cause illness.

How Do I Know if I Have HIV/AIDS?
Dental problems such as sore bleeding gums, herpes sores in the mouth, and fungal and candida (yeast) infections may be among the first signs of AIDS. However, you should not assume you are infected if you have any of these symptoms as these occur in the general population as well. The only way to determine whether you are infected is to be tested for HIV infection. Consult with your physician or other healthcare professional.

A positive HIV test result does not mean that you have AIDS. AIDS is a medical diagnosis made by a doctor based on specific criteria. You also cannot rely on symptoms to know whether or not you are infected with HIV. Many people who are infected with HIV do not have any symptoms at all for many years.

The following may be warning signs of infection with HIV:

  • Rapid weight loss
  • Dry cough
  • Recurring fever or profuse night sweats
  • Profound and unexplained fatigue
  • Swollen lymph glands in the armpits, groin or neck
  • Diarrhea that lasts for more than a week
  • White spots or unusual blemishes on the tongue, in the mouth or in the throat
  • Pneumonia
  • Red, brown, pink or purplish blotches on or under the skin or inside the mouth, nose or eyelids
  • Memory loss, depression and other neurological disorders

How Do I Prevent HIV/AIDS?
HIV transmission can occur when blood, semen, vaginal fluid, or breast milk from an infected person enters your body. The best way to prevent HIV is to avoid activities that allow the virus to enter your body. For more information on HIV/AIDS prevention, consult with a physician or other healthcare professional.

Many people worry about the risk of infection through a blood transfusion. Since 1985, all donated blood in the United States has been tested for HIV. The U.S. blood supply is considered to be among the safest in the world.

Can I Get HIV at the Dentist's Office?
Due to the nature of dental treatment, many people fear that HIV may be transmitted during treatment. Universal precautions are used between each and every patient to prevent the transmission of HIV and other infectious diseases.

These precautions require dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants to wear gloves, facemasks and eye protection, and to sterilize all handpieces (drills) and other dental instruments for every patient, using specific sterilization procedures outlined by the Centers for Disease Control. Items that cannot be sterilized are discarded in special containers. After each patient visit, gloves are discarded, hands are washed and a new pair of gloves is used for the next patient.

If you are anxious, spending a few minutes asking your dentist any questions you may have about health and safety precautions can put your mind at ease.

How is HIV/AIDS Treated?
Today there are medical treatments that can slow down the rate at which HIV weakens the immune system. There are other treatments that can prevent or treat some of the illnesses associated with AIDS. As with other diseases, early detection offers more options for treatment.


This article is intended to promote understanding of and knowledge about general oral health topics. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of your dentist or other qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition or treatment.

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Oral Health Effects of HIV/AIDS and STDS

The most common oral issues for HIV/AIDS individuals are oral warts, fever blisters, hairy leukoplakia (black hairy tongue), oral thrush and canker sores. Other oral issues that occur in the mouth are dry mouth, which can lead to cavities, and difficulty eating and communicating. If you have HIV, changes in your mouth may reflect changes in your immune status.
Some STDs can also affect your oral health; common symptoms of this are cold sores or sores on the inside of the mouth.