Your teeth are divided into four types: incisors, cuspids (or canines), premolars and molars. At most, you have 32 permanent teeth, but you start with 20 baby teeth, which include incisors, canines and molars, according to the Ministry of Health (MOH). Getting a little brush up—pun intended—on all the human teeth names, each type's location and their function can help you better understand why your oral care is so important.
Incisors Slice Food
Your smile begins with your incisors. These eight teeth are at the front of your mouth, with four on top and four on bottom, as can be seen in the eruption chart from MOH. Your incisors mainly work to slice and dice food into more easily chewable pieces. There are two types of incisors:
Central IncisorsThese incisors are directly in the middle of your mouth. They are typically the first teeth to erupt for babies and the first to fall out to make room for adult permanent teeth, according to MOH. They're also particularly prone to fractures and breaking. According to SingHealth, injuries to the upper central incisors are common during sports, which is why it's important for children and athletes alike to use special protection, such as a mouth guard, when engaging in sports, as concluded by this research published in Sports Health in the United States.
Lateral IncisorsYour front two teeth might have a "central" role in your smile, but the teeth just next to these — your lateral incisors — also help to form the perception of a great smile. A study of patients living in Saudi Arabia published in Periodontics and Prosthodontics points out that the shape, location and position of these teeth in relation to your central incisors make up the "golden proportion," which is the size relationship that humans perceive as visually pleasing.
Cuspids Grip and Tear Food
Your four cuspids are the fang-like teeth that sit next to your lateral incisors.
They're also often known as eye teeth (in the case of the upper two) or canines.
These teeth are shaped like points (cusps), as MOH notes, and are used for tearing food. Their position in your mouth also helps to guide your teeth and food into an optimal chewing position, according to the Advantage Career Institute Medical & Dental School (ACI) in the United States.
Premolars Crush Food
Your premolars are the next teeth adjacent to your canines, and they're found only in your permanent set of teeth. These eight teeth help you crush food, as MOH explains. In terms of human teeth names, they are also referred to as bicuspids — a term which indicates that they have two points, according to the Dictionary of Medicine published in the United States.
Molars Grind Up Food
Your molars are located in the back of your mouth and are the main teeth you use for grinding food, as MOH notes. In a full set of permanent teeth, there will be six molars in total, with three on the top and three on the bottom:
First and Second MolarsYour first molars are located toward the back of your mouth next to your second premolars. Behind them are your second molars, as can be seen in the MOH tooth eruption chart. These teeth have pits and fissures, which are grooves that can harbour bacteria and decay. To protect these teeth from cavities, your dentist may recommend dental sealants, as MOH explains.
Third MolarsYour third molars — also known as wisdom teeth — are the teeth furthest in the back of your mouth. They're unique because they are the last teeth to develop, typically erupting during the late teens or early twenties. In many cases, they need to be extracted due to the issues they give rise to, according to Tan Tock Seng Hospital.
According to the American Dental Association in the United States, teeth can actually last for hundreds of years, but they're susceptible to wear, damage and decay over a lifetime. Make sure to brush twice a day, floss daily and keep up with regular dental appointments to ensure all of your teeth stay healthy.