Gingivitis is a treatable and reversible form of gum disease. It is the first and mildest stage. Gum disease occurs when plaque that is constantly forming on your teeth accumulates and hardens over time. The bacteria found in this build-up causes damage to the gum tissue. Poor oral hygiene, such as infrequent brushing and flossing, along with irregular visits to your dental health professional, are the most common causes of gingivitis.
The National Health Portal of India explains that gingivitis is the mildest form of periodontal (gum) disease, caused by the bacterial plaque accumulation on teeth adjacent to the gums, its risk factors includes poor oral hygiene, smoking or chewing tobacco, diabetes, crooked teeth that are hard to keep clean, pregnancy, genetic predisposition, certain drugs such as steroids, certain anti-epilepsy drugs, cancer therapy drugs, some calcium channel blockers and oral contraceptives.