You wake up in the morning, swallow and — ouch! Pain when swallowing may be a sign of other issues affecting your throat. Luckily, your symptoms can often be soothed with home remedies or treated with over-the-counter medicine or antibiotics. A sore throat will often resolve on its own, but if your sore throat is severe or lasts longer than a week, the Mayo Clinic suggests seeing your doctor.
Sore Throat Symptoms
A sore throat is uncomfortable and can make eating and drinking challenging. The Cleveland Clinic lists some common symptoms that often accompany this condition:
- Throat pain when swallowing
- Swollen or sore glands in your neck
- Red tonsils with white patches on them
Identifying these signs and symptoms may help you determine what is causing your throat pain. However, if the symptoms get worse or persist, see your doctor. Below are five possible underlying causes of throat pain when swallowing.
1. Cold Virus
Colds can be a real bummer. A runny nose, sneezing, coughing and a sore throat are hallmark symptoms of the common cold, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Colds can be soothed with over-the-counter medication and typically resolve on their own within seven to 10 days. If you notice white spots on your tonsils, the CDC notes that you may have a bacterial infection and not a cold virus.
2. Strep Throat
If you don't have a cough and you notice white spots on your tonsils, swollen lymph nodes or tiny red spots on the roof of your mouth, you might have strep throat. The CDC states that strep throat is caused by group A Streptococcus (group A strep) bacteria. To determine if you have strep throat, your doctor will do a rapid strep test or analyze a bacterial culture sample to see if group A strep is present.
If your tonsils are swollen and your rapid strep test is negative, you might have tonsillitis. Symptoms of tonsillitis and strep throat often overlap — meaning it's best to see your doctor to confirm what's causing your symptoms.
Tonsillitis simply means inflammation of the tonsils, as the National Institutes of Health explains. It could be a result of group A strep or, more commonly, a virus. If bacterial tonsillitis is a recurring problem, particularly in children, your doctor may recommend surgery for tonsil removal. However, most cases of tonsillitis resolve quickly with antibiotics (if bacteria is causing the infection) or can be soothed with over-the-counter medicine.
4. Oral Thrush
Oral thrush can be another culprit of painful swallowing. The CDC explains that an overproduction of a naturally occurring fungus called Candida can cause oral thrush. Because it is a fungal infection, it's typically treated with a course of antifungal medication, and mild cases often resolve within seven to 14 days.
Another possible cause of painful swallowing is esophagitis. Esophagitis is the inflammation of the esophagus, which is the tube that connects the mouth and stomach, as Harvard Medical School outlines. These are the typical symptoms:
- Difficult or painful swallowing
- Pain in the chest or throat
- Acid reflux
Esophagitis can be caused by acid reflux, an allergic reaction or oral medications. It can also be caused be a bacterial, fungal or viral infection. If you are experiencing symptoms of esophagitis, contact your doctor for further testing.
What to Do Next
Several conditions can cause pain when swallowing, and your dentist or doctor can help to make a final diagnosis. To alleviate your throat pain at home, try these home remedies outlined by the Mayo Clinic:
- Gargling with salt water
- Drinking plenty of fluids
- Using a humidifier
If your sore throat doesn't get better or your notice red or white splotches in your throat or on your tonsils, it's a good idea to talk to your dentist or doctor to make sure you don't need antibiotics or other medications. Having a sore throat is a pain, but after just a few days of rest, most people begin to feel much better.