Orthodontia elicits a fairly common image of dental braces, featuring metal brackets many kids know all too well. But there's more to the science than that. Dentists often recommend other functional appliances as part of your child's larger orthodontic treatment.
Functional orthodontic appliances change the way a child's mouth "works," correcting bone problems to achieve the effect you want, according to Dr. Farid Shodjahee. Headgear, for example, guides jaw growth in the proper direction as a child develops, by holding back the upper jaw until the lower jaw catches up with it. It is often used with dental braces to straighten the teeth while correcting the bite.
Other items that fall into this category are lesser known than conventional braces and retainers. Here are a few that you may not have heard of: